ADDIE Does More Than Classrooms

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One of the misconceptions of ISD is that it was created to only build classroom training environments.Yet, one of the old Army manuals (1984) that is used for training ISD shows the above options for training. It also notes that options 1, 2, or 3 should be used in lieu of classroom training if it can adequately perform the job. Thus, classroom training should normally be the last option if there is more than one viable option. This is because classroom training is normally one of the more expensive options.

The five options are shown below with a few notes about them:

  1. Job Performance Aid (JPA) - this would include today's EPSS (Electronic Performance Support System)
  2. Self-Teaching Exportable Package - the elearning we know today would fall under this category
  3. Formal On-the-Job-Training (OJT)
  4. Installation Support School (on or near the employees' workplace) - this would be formal classroom training even though the training may be conducted outside in the field
  5. Resident Instruction (away from employees' workplace where travel and living expense would have to be considered) -this would also be formal classroom training.

Just as training designed for the classroom, the other options also need to follow the five phases of ISD to ensure they do what the are supposed to do. For example, even a simple JPA requires:

  • Analyzing the various settings and media to determine if it is the most approximate method.
  • Designing it so it performs as intended.
  • Developing it into a real product.
  • Delivering (implementing) it to the workers who need it.
  • Evaluating it to ensure it does the job it was intended to do. This also shows the business units that you care about the solutions you deliver (if it ain't worth following up on then it probably ain't worth doing) and you might learn something. Note the evaluation may be as simple as checking with a couple of managers and some of the employees to ensure it is doing what it is supposed to do.

The manual also gives some guidelines for selecting the correct training setting:

  • Job Performance Aid
    • close supervision not required
    • task follows a set procedure
    • JPA can be followed while performing the task
    • do not use if:
      • consequence of inadequate performance is high
      • employee lacks prerequisite skill
      • task requires high psychomotor skills
  • Self-Teaching Exportable Package
    • close supervision not required
    • task can be self-learned by individual or groups
    • material required for training can be adequate packaged
    • do not use if:
      • task failure would result in injury or damage
      • special facilities or equipment required
  • Formal On-the-Job-Training
    • close supervision is required
    • task can be self-learned by individual or groups in the workplace
    • task decay rate is very high
    • do not use if:
      • sufficient equipment is not available for learners to practice on
      • workplace cannot absorb the learners adequately
      • training would be disruptive to normal operations
  • Classroom
    • large group must be taught the same thing
    • task difficulty requires a high state of training (task is difficult and requires time to acquire skills)
    • learner interaction is required (such as team training)
    • material required for training cannot economically be placed in the field
    • essential the employee be able to perform upon job entry (high consequence if employees are inadequate performers)
      • do not use if:
      • task may be adequately trained elsewhere

In addition, think blended learning. When I was first trained in ISD we called it BoB (Best of Breed). Blended learning solutions are normally more efficient and effective when designed correctly as they inherit the best of each setting. And do not think of blended as just Brick and Click, but rather any combination of the above, plus more informal options, such as mentoring and social learning media.

Related Posts:

ADDIE Backwards Planning Model

ADDIE and the 5 Rules of Zen

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